Bhagavad Gita, Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda

Science and Yoga Philosophy (according to the Bhagavad Gita)

Science of Yoga (Bhagavad Gita) Para-Vidya, Philosophy Raja Yoga and Patanjali

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali / Bhagavad Gita

Video: Science and Yoga Philosophy (according to the Bhagavad Gita)

By Pedro Nonell

Good afternoon, Namaste! Let's reflect a little on “Science or philosophy of Yoga?" as set forth in the Bhagavad Gita.

Science of Yoga (Bhagavad Gita) Para-Vidya, Philosophy Raja Yoga and Patanjali

Bhagavad Gita in Spanish Filosofía del Yoga y Ciencia (Bhagavad Gita) Bhagavad Gita in Portuguese Filosofia da Ioga e Ciência (Bagavadeguitá).

To the Western environment of Yoga, we usually talk about the Philosophy of Yoga, when it refers to the study of everything that is beyond the Asanas. Virtually all yoga teacher training programs talk about yoga philosophy, and almost all of them mostly include the study of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali or Raja Yoga, and very few study the Bhagavad Gita.

  1. What is Yoga according to the Bhagavad Gita?

I prefer to talk about “Science and philosophy of Yoga”, based on the study of the Bhagavad Gita, and that synergizes with the “Philosophy of Yoga” based on Raja Yoga and the I prefer to talk about “Science and philosophy of Yoga”, based on the study of the Bhagavad Gita, and that synergizes with the “Philosophy of Yoga” based on Raja Yoga and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Below I will make some brief reflections to explain why I consider it as a Para-Vidya science:. Below I will make some brief reflections to explain why I consider it as a Para-Vidya science:

  1. The Science of Yoga of the Bhagavad Gita
  2. Gita, Raja Yoga and Patanjali
  3. Gita: a Para-Vidya science (Spiritual Science)

I believe that a Yoga Teacher should know both Raja Yoga or Patanjali and the Bhagavad Gita, not only to be a better human being and teacher, but also to be able to transmit this wisdom to his students and help them on their spiritual path.

Knowledge of the Bhagavad Gita would allow a yoga practitioner, beyond the Asanas, to explore its deep wisdom and thus help them in their self-knowledge and liberation as well as help them find their Dharma.

All chapters of the Bhagavad Gita end with a reference to the “Science of Yoga”, such as:

«Thus ends the third chapter entitled Karma Yoga (Yoga of Action) in the dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, on the science of yoga, as part of the knowledge of Brahman in the Upanishad called Bhagavad Gita» Bhagavad Gita IV 2.

And let us remember that in chapter IV- Yoga of Knowledge and Renunciation of Action of the Bhagavad Gita, Vishnu incarnates in Krishna to reestablish the Dharma. That is to say, it is the Lord Himself who affirms that the Bhagavad Gita is a science of yoga.

Bhagavad Gita IV-7-8 When evil increases, the Lord incarnates to restore the Dharma

In chapter IX- Yoga of Royal and Discriminatory Knowledge, ith a significant title, Krishna states:

Bhagavad Gita IX-2 Knowledge: King of Sciences, Philosophy, essence of Dharma

That is, this “real Knowledge” imparted by the Lord is the “King of sciences” and is also immutable since it is the very essence of the Dharma.

Why is it that to the West we talk more about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (Yoga Philosophy) than about the Bhagavad Gita?

I am going to make some initial considerations about the Bhagavad Gita, Raja Yoga and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Sri Krishna: I am the author of Vedanta, from Me comes Knowledge, Bhagavad Gita XV-15

  1. The Bhagavad Gita is a “Moksha Shastra”, a book of liberation and self-knowledge, where Vishnu incarnates in Sri Krishna, to restore the Dharma that is being threatened by the civil war of the Mahabharata, and transmit this wisdom to each and everyone. one of us through Arjuna
  2. Both the Bhagavad Gita and the Sutras are Yoga Shastra (authoritative texts)
  3. Therefore, the Bhagavad Gita is considered as “Shruti” or divine knowledge revealed to the Rishis, that is, its authorship does not belong to any human being. The Yoga Sutras are considered as Smriti
  4. Both Vedanta, Raja Yoga and Kapila's Samkhya philosophy are considered “Shat darshana”, that is, all three are orthodox Hindu philosophies
  5. The Bhagavad Gita was compiled by the sage Viasa long before the work of Patanjali (3rd century BC) and Raja Yoga
  6. Kapila's Sankhya Philosophy is one of the pillars of both the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter II) and Raja Yoga and Patanjali. Terms like Gunas, Prakriti, Ishvara, Pranayama, Dhyana, Samadhi or Purusha are common in these Yogas
  7. One of the characteristics of the Bhagavad Gita is its harmonizing nature, stating that any of the yogas defined in the Bhagavad Gita (Sankhya, Dhyana, Jnana, Bhakti, Karma Yoga..) are valid
  8. The Bhagavad Gita accepts both dualistic and non-dualistic systems (Advaita Vedanta). While the Sankhya is dualistic, Patanjali even believed in a Personal God. Adi Shankara considered the Samkhya doctrine to be totally opposite to Advaita Vedanta
  9. In the eight stages of Patanjali's Yoga Sutra, focused on Raja Yoga, he already suggests the practice of five ethical exercises: Ahimsa, truthfulness, non-stealing, pure living and non-coveting. All the Yamas and Niyamas are perfectly reflected in the Bhagavad Gita

Yoga of the Differentiation of the three Gunas. Book Yoga of Wisdom: Bhagavad Gita IV

How to practice Dhyana Yoga (philosophy, meditation) according to the Bhagavad Gita?

Bhagavad Gita VI-13-14. Yogi firm in Brahmacharya, fixing his eyes on his nose

Liberation from pride, Nonviolence (Ahimsa, Yoga Philosophy) Bhagavad Gita

Swami Vivekananda, disciple of Sri Ramakrishna, stated that this “spiritual science” defined in the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads, focused on the scientist study of subjective reality (that is, what “can neither be seen nor touched”), in the infinite), unlike materialist Western science that did it in objective reality (what we can see, perceive, and experience, that is, in the finite).

The Hindu Rishis have developed this spiritual science or Para-vidya, while the West has developed the finite science Apara-vidya.

In Shlokas 2 and 3 of chapter XIII Yoga of Liberation through Renunciation of the Bhagavad Gita the Lord explains to Arjuna what true Knowledge is:

“This body is called the Field (Kshetra), and he who knows it is called the Knower of the Field (Kshetrajnana) by the sages who discern the truth about both.
Know me as Kshetrajna (Knower of the Field) in all the Kshetras (bodies); the knowledge of Kshetra and Kshetrajna is the true Knowledge, according to My opinion..”

I affirm that it is the true Knowledge. Bhagavad Gita XIII-3

Objective (finite) knowledge centered on the study of the body (Shetra) is Apara-vidya. The subjective knowledge (“the true Knowledge” of the previous verse) of the Science of Yoga is Para-vidya and enables self-realization, knowledge of Atman, and Union with the Lord.

Verse 29 of chapter VI the Yoga of Meditation explains how the yogi sees the unity of all beings

Bhagavad Gita VI-29. Man focused on Yoga (Philosophy). Equanimity

In chapter X the Yoga of Divine Manifestations, verse 32 We find this “Science of the Self” or Adhyatmavidya (the Science of the spirituality or of Knowledge of the Self), also called the Science of all Sciences (sarva-vidya pratishtha) in the Upanishads:

«..Of all sciences, I am the Science of Being, and in debates I am reason» Bhagavad Gita X-32»

Furthermore, in any debate, whether scientific or philosophical, the Lord is “reason.”

Bhagavad Gita X-11: the Science of Knowledge of Atman (Yoga Philosophy)

Swami Vivekananda stated that religion is as scientific as science. In the many books, essays and speeches that he gave in the United States, England and India, he always referred to the fact that the model based on Western science plus Hindu spirituality was the most suitable for the world.

This spiritual science raised a series of hypotheses thousands of years ago, and throughout this time, in one way or another, general principles and laws that can be tested experimentally have been structured, established, and established. That is to say, many of the truths enunciated by the Rishis in this spiritual science have subsequently been proven by “Western” science. Both end up synergizing just as Swami Vivekananda said: “Western science plus Hindu spirituality

Swami Vivekananda Vision: Liberating humanity from ignorance (Bhagavad Gita and Vedanta)

That is, these two sciences are not incompatible. Albert Einstein, one of the greatest physicists and mathematicians in history, stated:

«When I read the Bhagavad Gita and meditate on how God created the universe, everything else seems superfluous to me».

Albert Einstein, Pralaya Universe heat death (Bhagavad Gita)

Erwin Schrodinger, the Austrian physicist and Nobel Prize winner in Physics in 1933, stated:

«The unity and continuity of wave mechanics is reflected in the All is One of Vedanta.. The mystical experience of union with God leads to this realization, unless there are important prejudices as to the West»

This Unity of Vedanta of the “All in One” had already been studied by the ancient Rishis of India, and is one of the pillars of Vedanta:

Bhagavad Gita XIII-30. Sri Krishna Brahman. When the Yogi sees diversity

Or in the words Sri Ramakrishna:

Knowledge leads to Unity, Ignorance to Diversity (Sri Ramakrishna)

The German physicist Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967), considered the father of the atomic bomb, declared that when he saw it explode for the first time, Krishna's terrible statement came to mind:

«I am the time of the final destruction of the world, now engaged in destroying the worlds. Even without you, none of the warriors prepared for battle will survive.

In summary, I think it is more appropriate to talk about “Science and Philosophy of Yoga”, defined in the Bhagavad Gita rather than “Philosophy of Yoga” limited to Raja Yoga or Patanjali.

Thank you very much! Namaste!, Pedro Nonell

Bhagavad Gita Course (Yoga Philosophy) according to Gandhi, comments Sivananda) in Spanish

(c) Gita Institute

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